Baker2, christoper atwater, craig esherick1 1george mason university, sport recreation and tourism 2 george mason university, special education corresponding author email. Identifying sports diplomacy resources as soft power tools. Pdf sport diplomacy in international relations judit trunkos. Sports diplomacy may transcend cultural differences and bring people together. The phenomenon of sports diplomacy in modern international. Sports and diplomacy in the global arena curriculum. In a traditional sense, diplomacy is the conduct of relations between sovereign states with standing in world politics. Sports were played all over the globe and enabled kids to reshape their aggressions into exercise and games. Bureau of educational and cultural affairs, part of the u. In the highly globalized world, states are using sports as a tool to legitimize their superiority peacefully. Politics and sports or sports diplomacy describes the use of sport as a means to influence diplomatic, social, and political relations. His research interests lie in the study of diplomacy and foreign relations particularly in relation to postwar planning and international sport. Rofe 2016 sport and diplomacy a global diplomacy pdf. Public diplomacy is identified as an interdisciplinary study where the different disciplinary insights should be integrated.
This article explores the potent yet ambiguous possibilities of sport as it relates to diplomacy. A report of a conference on the state of the field, by joseph s. Beyond a collection of anecdotal, sporadic and casespeci. Since antiquity, international sports has provided a symbolic arena for. In this strategy, sport is an instrument of state policy that ties achievements of the nation. Much has been written on sport and politics and sports as foreign policy, for. Pdf how can states leverage international sport events to strengthen their international relations. This book will be of much interest to students of diplomacy, foreign policy, sports studies, and international relations in general. Another example of the neglect of diplomacy is international security studies.
Even the bestknown example of sports seeming to bring two nations closerthe pingpong diplomacy in the early 1970s between china and the. Sports are a fun and efficient way to reach out to certain strategic audiences, such as atrisk youth due to violence or extreme poverty. It surveys the range of actors that have engaged in sport diplomacy, and how these have changed and broadened in the incomplete transition from club to network diplomacy. The author will define the term sports diplomacy and attempt to outline the strategy of norways public diplomacy. Sports diplomacy and apartheid south africa the african file. The limits of soft powersports diplomacy templates in ir. North korea and the spotty record of sports diplomacy. The mixed record of sports diplomacy council on foreign. Lastly, the soft powersports diplomacy templates have also been oversimplified to the extent of being popularised and incompatible with their ontologies. The mixed record of sports diplomacy east germany was a perennial powerhouse at winter games, including the 1988 calgary games where it. Sports and diplomacy in the global arena is an instructional package that explores the relationship between sports and diplomacy throughout history.
The video begins with the creation of the olympics in ancient greece and continues through the present day. It then presents the government perspective on sports diplomacy and outlines. In particular, the article highlights the distinctive and often highly influential role of international. The embassy utilizes sports diplomacy as a way to build bridges and enhance peopletopeople ties, as the universal passion for sports transcends sociocultural and linguistic barriers, and unites people. Mapping the relationship between international sport and diplomacy. Diplomacy has been used as the main tool of foreign policy taking sports as a form of interaction. Sports diplomacy in the last twenty years has undergone a revolution with its main focus turning to infrastructure and development goals through the hosting of international sporting events. Worldwide sports events also have great impact to international relations and politics. Today sport is one of the most important components of human activity. A grand feast for all the sports fans and an opportunity for all the international relations fans to learn something new about diplomacy. This papers level of analysis is on international sport and traditional diplomacy. Multilateral diplomacy in the context of international organisations started to gain importance after the first world war and especially following the second world war.
Lynnjones, international security, 12 spring 1988, pp. Super bowl screening at the consulate promotes sports, international and intergenerational dialogue thanks to houstons location 16 time zones away from the russian far east, the consulate in vladivostok was able to broadcast the super bowl on monday morning in a spectacular public diplomacy event promoting sports, a healthy life style. Programs bring together those interested in sports, recreation, and leadership to promote tolerance, cooperation, and life. During the monthlong tournament, france welcomed 6,000 foreign fans, who stayed eight days on. One ofttouted example of sports fanning the flames of conflict instead of mitigating differences is the football. Soft power is the ability to affect others to obtain the outcomes one wants through attraction rather than coercion or payment. Sports diplomacy in the age of global media, journal of the international institute, 711999. A countrys soft power rests on its resources of culture, values, and policies. Sport as a tool for cultural diplomacy has already recorded many successes, both at the regional and international level. Case studies in sport diplomacy explores the influence and effectiveness of sport diplomacy in improving longterm relations between nations by opening a dialogue with international leaders, raising awareness of host countries and to bridging cultural differences, and in building international relationships through ambassadors that could. This nationbranding through sport is a part of the public sport diplomacy exercised by almost all countries.
The research shows that sports are on the agenda of official diplomatic strategies. The report cites the importance of nonmilitary concerns as an. The strategy is based on consultation with the australian sports industry. Although hosting international highprofile sporting events such as the olympics and the fifa world cup are attractive soft power tools for governments to achieve public diplomacy goals, not all sports diplomacy efforts are megasporting events. Sports and diplomacy seek to relate the impact of sport in influencing diplomacy and relations. Pdf public diplomacy and soft power semantic scholar. The postapartheid governments foreign policy included promoting international relations through trade, finance, culture and sport. David black and byron peacock 20 sport and diplomacy.
From nazi germany to communist russia, from capitalistic united states. Can soccer be utilized as a foreign policy tool to improve overall communication and subsequently. Mapping the relationship between international sport and. Sport is an appropriate tool for enhancing the international position of a country. In fact, one of the major reasons to host an international sporting event includes the attached development opportunities for the host city. Director for the ma global diplomacy in the centre for international studies and diplomacy at soas university of london. Cieds sports diplomacy programs are international peopletopeople exchanges that build mutual understanding and cooperation through sports. Sports diplomacy and apartheid south africa by alex laverty dec 2010 sport as a tool of diplomacy came of age in the postworld war i world when it caught the attention of politicians and governments as a channel through which to conduct international relations. Australian sports diplomacy strategy 201518 sports diplomacy is an increasingly important aspect of diplomatic practice and a growing part of the global sports industry. Sports diplomacy ministry for europe and foreign affairs.
This has been called sports diplomacy, and the athletes used. Sport is a universal language and plays a unique role in shaping and showcasing australias identity, values and culture. Sports diplomacy falls under public diplomacy, which is used to improve intermediate and longterm relations between states by influencing the public abroad to accomplish foreign policy goals. Structurally, the paper begins by describing the reasons why sport and diplomacy are hybridising. Relationship building is suggested as the central paradigm of both public diplomacy and nation branding which can also serve as the central concept upon which the two areas could be further integrated. As a result, the landscape of sports diplomacy becomes clearer, as do the pitfalls and limitations of using sport as a diplomatic tool. Case studies in sport diplomacy craig esherick george mason university robert. These two fields are very much interlinked at least from the very beginning of the idea of olympic games. The use of sports and politics has had both positive and negative implications over history. Sports diplomacy has previously been defined as an old but understudied aspect of the estranged relations between peoples, nations and states. Department of states, indicates sports diplomacy as one of the priorities for harnessing closer ties between the usa and other countries. Public diplomacy, which is the field of soft power application. Finally, this conference paper is a work in progress. The phenomenon of sports diplomacy in modern international relations.
These days, it is better understood as the conscious, strategic and ongoing use of sport, sportspeople and sporting events by state and nonstate actors to advance policy, trade, development, education. Sport as a phenomenon is truly global in nature, with the largest international events, such as the olympic games and the world cup with its billionth tv auditory. Implement and give fulleffect to the sportrelated provisions already set. This study explores the use of sports diplomacy by nations and attempts to identify the most applicable sports diplomacy resources available to.
Sports diplomacy programs center for intercultural. In the oxford handbook of modern diplomacy, 1st ed. Pdf sport diplomacy in international relations judit. In order to fully understand the significance of sport in international diplomacy, it is nec essary to. The seminar on sport diplomacy was attended by almost 100 participants from member states, international, european and national sport federations, olympic movement, politicians, decisionmakers and other sport stakeholders. The e4 directorate of the foreign ministry, together with other, competent ministries, handles issues concerning international sports relations and events, the olympic games, the olympic truce initiative, and the preparation and conclusion of international sports cooperation agreements. A smart power strategy combines hard and soft power resources. Public diplomacy has a long history as a means of promoting a countrys soft power and was essential in winning the cold war. This book offers an accessible overview of the role sport plays in international relations and diplomacy.
Following the expiry of the australian sports diplomacy strategy 201518, a world first, the department of foreign affairs and trade, together with the office for sport, tourism australia, sports australia and austrade, developed the new sports diplomacy strategy sports diplomacy 2030. The aim of the article is to investigate the sports diplomacy of norway and to examine its influence on the international brand of this country. This paper attempts to answer the following main research question. In fact, the link between sport and peace may be traced back to the. The focus of this paper is the role of international soccer in international relations. Studying kosovos quest for international recognition, brentin and tregoures 2016 emphasize the. The contribution of sports events and athletes to nationbranding is certainly due to the. From his work as a sports diplomat in latin america, dave carrasco came to think of sports as an international language.235 511 1290 1208 322 296 1380 258 672 738 880 1343 1202 1394 1574 1377 613 716 345 1415 427 215 1558 434 171 656 1539 1215 444 48 1347 1431 11 1216 244 377 913